Alpha Beta Gamma: History of Radioactivity [CC]

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How was alpha, beta, and gamma radiation discovered and named? Why is there two kinds of beta radiation? Through the papers and letters of Marie and Pierre Curie, Ernest Rutherford, Paul Villard and more I tell the story of how and why the complex nature of radiation was discovered.

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Fascinating article about the history of Rutherford’s radium: #FN6

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Some references:
Rutherford, Ernest, (January, 1899) “Uranium Radiation and the Electrical Conduction Produced by It” Philosophical Magazine Vol. XLVII p. 116
Rutherford, Ernest, (January, 1899) “Uranium Radiation and the Electrical Conduction Produced by It” Philosophical Magazine Vol. XLVII p. 116
J Elster und H. Geitel “Weitere Versuche an Becquerel-strahlen” Annalen der Physik Band 69 (Sept 14, 1899) p. 88
Giesel, M “Ueber die Ablenkbarkeit der Becquerelstrahlen im magnetischen Felde” Annalen der Physik Vol 305, Issue 12 January 1, 1899
Curie, P “Action of the Magnetic Field on the Becquerel Rays” (January 8, 1900) Comptes Rendus No 2, Tome CXXX p. 74
Curie, P and Curie, M “On the Electric Charge of Deviable Rays of Radium” (March 5, 1900) Comptes Rendus No 10, Tome CXXX p. 648
Rutherford, Ernest to Newton, Mary Aug 11, 1895 quoted in Eve, A. S. Rutherford p. 56
Rutherford, Ernest to Newton, Mary Aug 3, 1898 quoted in Eve, A. S. Rutherford p. 55
Soddy, Fredrick, quoted in Schwoerer, H., Magil, J. Beleites, B. Lasers and Nuclei p. 131
Rutherford, E (Feb, 1903) “The Magnetic and Electric Deviation of the easily absorbed Rays from Radiation” Philosophical Magazine Vol V – Sixth Series p. 177
Rutherford, E (Feb, 1903) “The Magnetic and Electric Deviation of the easily absorbed Rays from Radiation” Philosophical Magazine Vol V – Sixth Series p. 177
Curie, M Radio-Active Substances (1904) p. 33
Curie, M Radio-Active Substances (1904) p. 33
Frederick Soddy quoted in Howorth, M Pioneer Research on the Atom (1958) p. 98
Frederick Soddy quoted in Howorth, M Pioneer Research on the Atom (1958) p. 112
Ramsay, W and Soddy, F “Experiments in Radioactivity, and the Production of Helium from Radium” (July 28, 1903) Proceedings of the Royal Society (Vol 72) p. 206
Rutherford, E and Royds, T “The nature of alpha particle from Radioactive Substances” Phil. Mag. 17 p. 286 (Jan 1909)
Rutherford, Ernest “Forty Years of Physics” in Background to Modern Science, 1938 p 48
Rutherford, Ernest “Forty Years of Physics” in Background to Modern Science, 1938 p 48
Rutherford, Ernest “Forty Years of Physics” in Background to Modern Science, 1938 p 48
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